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The subject of this paper concerns fundamental aspects of complications, management and education of the diabetic
patient, especially the patient with macroangiopathic complications .
The increase in the prevalence of diabetes mellitus is now exponential and its impact on cardiovascular diseases is
In fact, the patient with diabetes has a significantly increased risk of developing major cardiovascular events.
This is due to the particular aggressiveness of atherosclerotic disease at the level of the vessels, favored by endothelial
dysfunction linked to the hyperglycemic state.
Diabetes is a chronic disease with very widespread diffusion all over the world, destined to increase in the near future
with the progressive aging of the population and the increasing occurrence of risk conditions that precede its onset.
We are in fact in the presence of a real pandemic confirmed by epidemiological data, which indicate that more than
300 million people in the world are affected by diabetes.
In Italy, the treatment for diabetes absorbs 6.65% of the overall health expenditure, with a cost per patient that is more
than double the national average.
Given the significant burden diabetes places on public health, preventing and improving the care of people with diabetes should be a primary goal for most communities and health systems.
The consequences for individuals are due to the complications that the person with diabetes can develop, in terms of
a reduction in both the expectation and the quality of life, with significant repercussions, including economic ones.
The organizational quality and efficiency of diabetic care 4 are correlated with better disease control, with a better
prognosis of complications, leading to a lower diabetes-related mortality rate.
Reducing morbidity and mortality and improving the quality of life of people with diabetes mellitus represent one
of the current challenges for healthcare professionals, healthcare organizations and medical staff working in public
The selection and subsequent implementation of therapeutic education interventions, whose efficacy and congruence
with needs have been demonstrated, are essential steps towards improving the conditions of people with diabetes.
Diabetes is a chronic disease and as such requires responsible management by those affected. Often people with
diabetes forget to live with a silent disease which, in addition to acute complications, also manifests long-term complications which can become fatal.
A structured intervention is therefore necessary that increases the motivation and adherence of patients to the therapeutic plan, thus leading to a good metabolic control, to an acquisition of knowledge that allows them an adequate
management of the disease and a consequent better quality of life.
The aim of this thesis is to research the results of lifestyle modification among the most important scientific evidence,
taking into consideration aspects such as: metabolic control, acquired knowledge, self-management, self-efficacy,
quality of life and satisfaction of the subjects.
The research was carried out by consulting international databases such as “ Pubmed ” and “ google scholar “.
The articles report that education for lifestyle change increases knowledge of one’s illness, self-management skills
and thus 2 an improvement in the quality of life.
As a result, there will be a reduction in the incidence of diabetes and an improvement in numerous cardiovascular
factors. Furthermore, the nurse plays a role of fundamental importance both at the educational level through specific
structured interventions, and at the psychological level.
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